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The ethics of babywearing

As a branch of philosophy, ethics investigates the questions “What is the best way for people to live?” and “What actions are right or wrong in particular circumstances?” In practice, ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality, by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime. (Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ethics)

So what’s that got to do with babywearing? I don’t think there should be any ethical discussions about carrying your baby, that is definitely the natural thing to do. But when it comes to babywearing products, like wraps and carriers, there are a number of ethical issues to consider on your babywearing journey.

Fibre

Where has the fibre from which your wrap is made come from? Is it commercially grown cotton that has consumed a lot of water and pesticides in its production? Is it silk that requires the silk worm to be killed in order to spin the thread?

If this isn’t something you’ve considered before, it is worth looking into. It isn’t necessarily wrong to purchase wraps made from commercially grown cotton, it is 2015 and most of us are wearing clothes made from commercially grown cotton. But it is important to be informed and make a considered decision about what you buy as a consumer and how this fits into your ethical framework.

For example, bamboo is relatively easy to grow and therefore doesn’t generally require herbicides and pesticides so it can be grown organically, but it requires a lot of water to turn it into thread because it is quite a tough, fibrous plant and needs a lot of manipulation to make it into the soft thread you may be familiar with. And there in lies the ethical dilemma.

And then there are animal fibres. Silk especially has the potential to raise ethical issues, as some types of silk require the cocoons to be boiled with the pupae still inside to reel the silk thread in one continuous strand. For some people, the treatment of a silk worm is probably not of huge concern, but if you are vegan for ethical reasons for example, it is likely to be a far bigger issue.

I asked Prae from Australian-owned woven wrap company Oonlamoon for some information about the eri silk that her company uses to make handwoven wraps in Thailand. Prae explained that eri silk is a discontinuous fibre that needs to be spun together to make thread, so it is possible for the silk worm to turn into a moth and leave the cocoon without compromising silk thread production. However, the weavers that weave eri silk wraps for Oonlamoon in Thailand farm the silk worms for food consumption in addition to farming tapioca, with the silk worms eating the tapioca leaves that would otherwise be discarded. The additional income from silk worms and silk thread helps keep tapioca farmers on the land when there is increasing pressure to move to the cities for factory-type work.

While for some vegans this may still pose ethical issues, it is clear that this complete cycle and usefulness of the silk worm for other farming practices and food consumption is a better ethical outcome than silk worms that are simply boiled to reel their thread. Prae is not aware of any woven wrap manufacturers using Ahisma silk in their products (Ahisma silk is eri silk where the worm has been allowed to mature and leave the cocoon as a moth).

Even wool has ethical considerations. PETA has recently released media commentary about the treatment of sheep in the shearing process, which is worth a look if you are a wool lover.

Working conditions

As with any textiles, it is worth investigating the working conditions under which wraps and carriers are manufactured. Do workers get paid adequately? Are factories and warehouses suitable working environments? Are western business owners exploiting workers in third world economies? As the babywearing industry moves from small cottage industry to larger commercial manufacturing industry these questions are worth considering before making your next purchase.

Counterfeiters

With the rise and rise of the babywearing industry, so follow the counterfeiters trying to make a quick buck off of someone else’s success. Ergobaby is the biggest victim of this, though there are others, notably Freehand mei tais and Manducas. Counterfeit Ergos are sold on eBay for what seems like a great price – sucking in many a first-time babywearer.

Not only should you be concerned about a lack of quality control and testing of a counterfeit carrier, you should also consider the ethical issues around supporting counterfeiters. Counterfeiting is illegal, and buying a counterfeit product puts money in the hands of people involved in criminal activities. Companies like Ergobaby have invested a lot of time and money into making one of the most popular baby carriers on the market and can be credited with helping make babywearing mainstream. Every counterfeit carrier sold is taking money away from them, not to mention the money they spend trying to fight counterfeiters. While most people would never deliberately buy from a counterfeiter, it is important to be aware the problem exists and thoroughly investigate the legitimacy of the product you are buying, particularly when purchasing through sites like eBay.

Cultural appropriation

Cultural appropriation is where people from the dominant cultural group exploit the culture of less privileged groups, generally with a disregard and poor understanding of the history of that culture. A current example is where the feather headdress associated with First Nation cultures in North America has become a fashion statement among hip young things at music festivals across North America, Europe and Australia. Taking a culturally symbolic item and turning it into a fashion accessory is cultural appropriation, and doing so raises serious ethical issues.

In the babywearing world, cultural appropriation can be seen in the use of certain patterns and symbols on wraps and carriers. Culturally significant patterns and symbols being used on wraps manufactured by companies not associated with that culture is ethically questionable. It would not be appropriate, for example, for a company owned by people from the dominant white culture to use a traditional Aboriginal design on a wrap or carrier without considerable consultation with an appropriate Aboriginal representative. But unfortunately, this type of cultural appropriation has happened on occasion in the babywearing industry, so it pays to be mindful of this when choosing a wrap or carrier. The pattern might look amazing, but is it really appropriate for that company to be using that pattern in that manner?

Overall, I think the babywearing industry does a wonderful job of considering its social responsibilities, but as it continues to grow it is definitely worth making yourself aware of any potential issues around what you’re buying. I hope I haven’t made things too complicated for you by raising these issues – here’s some Calvin and Hobbes to lighten things up!

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Babywearing: what’s it really all about?

In the crazy online world we inhabit these days, it is easy to get caught up in the hype of the next wrap release, or in chasing our DISO (desperately in search of) HTF (hard to find) WC (wrap conversion) that we absolutely MUST have. And in itself, there is nothing wrong with this. The collection of babywearing items like wraps and carriers is a hobby, just like collecting any other objects of desire.

It’s been almost one year since I wrote my first blog post, where I outlined the reasons why babywearing can be a great tool for any parents. It seems timely to take a step back from the hype and reflect on what babywearing is all about; how we ended up in this community in the first place. And that is our babies.

I recently attended the Australian Babywearing Conference in Adelaide, where we were lucky enough to hear a keynote session by the founder of the Canadian Babywearing School, Arie Brentnall-Compton. Arie was inspiring, I took so much from her speech, more than I could have even imagined, and as a result I’ve been reinvigorated to continue working to promote babywearing, when earlier this year I wasn’t sure how much longer I would be part of this community now that my youngest (and last) child is two.

Keynote speaker at babywearing conference

Arie Brentnall-Compton addresses delegates at the Australian Babywearing Conference 2015

This inspiration comes from being reminded about what babywearing really is all about, and that is carrying your baby. Babies are born expecting to be held, but in this modern world, they often spend a lot of time in prams, swings, bouncers, bumbos and a multitude of other things marketers love to push on new parents. And while each of these things might have a place in helping you care for your baby, there is a definite need to see the amount of time babies are held by their parents increase across modern society as a whole.

Arie strongly advocates for carrying of babies to become normalised and for old-fashioned notions of spoiling babies by holding them too much to become a footnote in the history books. Babywearing plays a part in this because carrying your baby in your arms can make it hard to get on with the rest of your busy life. While you’re holding your baby you can’t make dinner, or shower, or play properly with your other children. As many a new mother with a newborn will attest, you can feel trapped in your own home by a baby that will not be put down without much crying and unhappiness (from both the baby and the parents!). So wraps and carriers are the tool that allows you to do what your baby needs you to do (carry them), but still get on with your life.

So why is carrying your baby important?

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Carrying your baby is the biological norm. The fourth trimester has become a popular concept in parenthood recently, and for good reason. Moving from life in the womb to life in the big, wide world is pretty confronting for a helpless newborn who really should have stayed inside for a bit longer if it wasn’t for the size of its skull. Staying close to mum or dad (or other caregiver) is where baby can feel safe and secure and gain an understanding of the world and their place in it. Babies are born to be worn.

Arie shared an interesting perspective on helping people to understand why babywearing is important. She talked us through a day in the life of a new mother, and how babywearing fits into that day.

In the morning, a mother needs to eat breakfast. Carrying her baby in a carrier allows her to make herself breakfast and finish eating while also meeting her baby’s needs. A proper diet is important for a mother’s well-being and also in establishing breast milk supply. Skin-to-skin contact with her baby also assists in establishing breastfeeding.

Brushing her teeth, brushing her hair, putting on some lipstick even – looking after herself is important. Not having the time to look after herself is a risk factor for post-natal depression. Babywearing allows her to meet her baby’s need to be held while allowing her to do a few small things for herself as well.

The dog needs to be walked. Walking the dog while pushing a pram is difficult, if not impossible. Babywearing helps get a mother (and her dog) out of the house for some much needed exercise. Exercise, even just walking, can have as positive an impact on mild to moderate depression as medication.

Next is a trip to the health care clinic for baby’s check up. The car capsule is awkward and difficult to carry. It is not recommended that babies remain in capsules outside of the car. It can lead to a flat head and even positional asphyxiation. Popping baby into a carrier means baby stays calm during the visit and mum has her hands free.

Witching hour. Arsenic hour. Whatever you call it, there’s that time of the afternoon or evening when baby just cries for no apparent reason. Research has shown that babies that are carried will cry less (Hunziker UA, Garr RG. Increased carrying reduces infant crying: A randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 1986, 77:641-648). Crying babies can have a serious impact on family life. Arie pointed out that babies who are most likely to be shaken are those that are crying inconsolably. She also suggested that securely attached fathers are less likely to abuse their children, and also less likely to abuse their children’s mother. Babywearing can help fathers bond with their babies.

Time for bed. When baby sleeps badly, everyone sleeps badly, and this can have a negative impact on families and relationships. Babywearing can help to settle your baby, and promote longer periods of sleep. And sleep begets sleep.

Babywearing can be instrumental in improving breastfeeding rates and reducing post-natal depression. It can help develop stronger family bonds and securely attached children. The method of carrying your baby isn’t very important, as long as it’s done safely. Babywearing really is about the practice, not the product.

I’m probably preaching to the converted here, but each of us can make a difference in helping babywearing become widely accepted in the community. Let’s normalise carrying your baby. Let’s aim for mothers-to-be to see babywearing everywhere and understand that it is just what you do when you have a baby.

Are you promoting babywearing in your community? Tell me how!